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http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100330/full/news.2010.160.html

The latest ruling, delivered on 29 March, is the result of a lawsuit brought in May 2009 against Myriad Genetics, based in Salt Lake City, Utah, and the University of Utah Research Foundation, which hold the patents on the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Mutations on BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for most hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. A woman who tests positive on Myriad’s BRCA test has on average an 82% risk of developing breast cancer in her lifetime and a 44% risk of developing ovarian cancer, according to the company.

The patents, which Myriad has actively enforced, grant the company the exclusive right to perform diagnostic tests on the two genes. The company charges over $3,000 for its BRACAnalysis test. In 2009, Myriad’s revenues from molecular diagnostics grew by 47% to $326.5 million. BRACAnalysis accounts for the lion’s share of those revenues.

The plaintiffs in the case included individual physicians and patients as well as the Association for Molecular Pathology and the American College of Medical Genetics; they were represented by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and the New York–based Public Patent Foundation. The American Society of Human Genetics and the American Medical Association also filed briefs in support of the plaintiffs’ challenge to the patents.

The plaintiffs called the patents illegal on the basis that they restrict both scientific research and patients’ access to medical care and that patents on human genes violate patent law because genes are “products of nature”.

Complete article http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100330/full/news.2010.160.html

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I got a call with the results of the genetic testing. I am negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2.  

Information from National Cancer Institute:

What does a negative BRCA1 or BRCA2 test result mean?

A negative test result will be interpreted differently, depending upon whether there is a known mutation in the family. If someone in a family has a known mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2, testing other family members for that specific gene alteration can provide information about their cancer risk. In this case, if a family member tests negative for the known mutation in that family, it is highly unlikely that they have an inherited susceptibility to cancer. This test result is called a “true negative.” Having a true negative test result does not mean that a person will not get cancer; it means that the person’s risk of cancer is the same as that of the general population.

In cases where no known mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 has previously been identified in a family with a history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, a negative test is not informative. It is not possible to tell whether a person has an alteration in BRCA1 or BRCA2 that was not identified by the test (a false negative), or whether the result is a true negative. In addition, it is possible for people to have an alteration in a gene other than BRCA1 or BRCA2 that increases their cancer risk, but is not detectable by this test.

Information from National Cancer Institute

What are BRCA1 and BRCA2? Each year, more than 192,000 American women learn they have breast cancer. Approximately 5 to 10 percent of these women have a hereditary form of the disease. Changes, called alterations or mutations, in certain genes make some women more susceptible to developing breast and other types of cancer. Inherited alterations in the genes called BRCA1 and BRCA2 (short for breast cancer 1 and breast cancer 2) are involved in many cases of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Researchers are searching for other genes that may also increase a woman’s cancer risk.The likelihood that breast and/or ovarian cancer is associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 is highest in families with a history of multiple cases of breast cancer, cases of both breast and ovarian cancer, one or more family members with two primary cancers (original tumors at different sites), or an Ashkenazi (Eastern European) Jewish background. However, not every woman in such families carries an alteration in BRCA1 or BRCA2, and not every cancer in such families is linked to alterations in these genes.

More information from National Cancer Institute

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